44 American Dental Association with fruits generally having lower concentrations (ranging from 0.01 to 0.2 ppm) than in vegetables. Raisins are one exception in the fruit category with a higher fluoride concentration due to the use of certain pesticides and concentration through drying.35 Brewed teas can contain fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm to 6 ppm depending on the amount of dry tea used, the water fluoride concentration and the brewing time.36 The fluoride value for unsweetened instant tea powder appears very high when reported as a dry powder because this product is extremely concentrated. However, when one teaspoon of the unsweetened tea powder is added to an eight ounce cup of tap water, the value for prepared instant tea is similar to the values reported for regular brewed tea.34 Foods and beverages commercially processed (cooked or reconstituted) in cities fluoridated to the recommended level generally contain higher levels of fluoride than those processed in nonfluoridated communities. These foods and beverages are consumed not only in the city where processed, but also are often distributed to and consumed in nonfluoridated areas.37 This “halo” or “diffusion” effect results in increased fluoride intake by people in nonfluoridated communities, providing them increased protection against tooth decay.38,39 As a result of the widespread availability of these various sources of fluoride, the difference between tooth decay rates in fluoridated areas and nonfluoridated areas is somewhat less than several decades ago but this difference is still significant. Failure to account for the diffusion effect results in an underestimation of the total benefit of water fluoridation especially in areas where large amounts of fluoridated products are brought into nonfluoridated communities.38 The average daily dietary intake of fluoride (expressed on a body weight basis) by children residing in communities with water fluoridated at 1.0 mg/L is 0.05 mg/kg/day (milligram per kilogram of body weight per day).40 In communities without optimally fluoridated water, average intakes for children are about 50% lower.40 Dietary fluoride intake by adults in communities where water is fluoridated at 1.0 mg/L averages 1.4 to 3.4 mg/day, and in nonfluoridated areas averages 0.3 to 1.0 mg/ day.40 With the 2015 recommendation that drinking water be fluoridated at 0.7 mg/L, average intakes would be 30% lower in fluoridated communities than when they were fluoridated at 1.0 mg/L. 23. How much fluoride is recommended to maximize the tooth decay prevention benefits of fluoride? Answer. As with all nutrients, the appropriate amount of daily fluoride intake varies with age and body weight. Fluoride is safe and effective when used and consumed properly. Fact. In 1997, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine developed a comprehensive set of reference values for dietary nutrient intakes.40 These new reference values, the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), replace the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) which had been set by the National Academy of Sciences since 1941. The new values present nutrient requirements to optimize health and, for the first time, set maximum-level guidelines to reduce the risk of adverse effects from excessive consumption of a nutrient. Along with calcium, phosphorous, magnesium and vitamin D, DRIs for fluoride were established because of its proven preventive effect on tooth decay. (See Table 2 in this Question.) The Adequate Intake (AI) establishes a goal for intake to sustain a desired indicator of health without causing side effects. In the case of fluoride, the AI is the daily intake level required to reduce tooth decay without causing moderate dental fluorosis. The AI for fluoride intake from all sources (fluoridated water, foods, beverages, fluoride dental products and dietary fluoride supplements) is set at 0.05 mg/kg/day. Using the established AI of 0.05 mg/ kg, the amount of fluoride for optimal health to be consumed each day has been calculated by sex and age group (expressed as average weight).40 The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) establishes a maximum guideline. The UL is higher than the AI and is not the recommended level of intake. The UL is the estimated maximum intake level that should not produce unwanted effects on health. The UL for fluoride intake from all sources (fluoridated water, foods, beverages, fluoride dental products and dietary fluoride supplements) is set at 0.10 mg/kg/day (milligram per kilogram of body weight per day) for infants, toddlers, and children through eight years of age. For older children and adults, who are no longer at risk for dental fluorosis, the UL for fluoride is set at
Previous Page Next Page